Faculty Member

Anne-​Emanuelle Birn BA, MA, Sc.D.

Email Address(es)
ae.birn@utoronto.ca
Office Phone
(416) 946-5792
Office Address
Dalla Lana School of Public Health 155 College St, Room 558 Toronto, ON M5T 3M7
Website(s)
UTSC website
Division(s)/Office
Social & Behavioural Health Sciences Division
Position
Professor
SGS Status
Full Member
Appointment Status
Non budgtry Crss

Research Interests

  • history of public health in Latin America (Mexico, Uruguay)
  • global/international health policy and politics, past and present
  • women and international health
  • historical demography – infant mortality
  • societal determinants of health
  • comparative health policy (Latin America)
  • Health and Medicine in Cold War Latin America

Primary health care, social justice, and international (health) politics in the 1980s and 1990s

Education & Training History

EDUCATION:

1993 Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD

Sc.D. in Health Policy/ History of Public Health

Dissertation: “Local Health and Foreign Wealth: The Rockefeller Foundation’s Public Health Programs in Mexico, 1924-1951” (Supervisor: Elizabeth Fee)

Elected member of Delta Omega Public Health Honor Society

1988 University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

M.A. in History, First Class Honours

1986 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

B.A. in History and Science, Magna Cum Laude

Other Affiliations

Concurrent appointments:

Centre for Critical Development Studies (UTSC)

School of Graduate Studies, Full Member since 2003

Status Only Professor and Associate Member, Graduate Department of Nursing Science, (2009-2013) Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing

Graduate Collaborative Program in Women and Gender Studies (Cross-listed faculty)

Latin American Studies (Affiliated faculty member)

Mentor, Collaborative Graduate Programme in Women’s Health

Fellow, Global Health Promotion Consortium

Senior Fellow, Massey College

Primary Teaching Responsibilities

  • Urban Epidemics, Past and Present
  • History of International Health
  • Collaborative Doctoral Program in Global Health Seminar

Professional Summary & Appointments

July 2010- currently University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada,  Professor

2003-2013 Canada Research Chair in International Health

May 2012 -December 2013 Milano Graduate School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy New School for Public Engagement, New York, NY Visiting Scholar

January-June 2010 Sabbatical volunteer in Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade, and Human Rights World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

July 2003- June 2010 University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Associate Professor (with tenure) and Canada Research Chair in International Health

January-June 2008 Fulbright Scholar, Paris, France Centre de Recherche Médicale et Sanitaire (INSERM) and Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques (INED)

July 2001-June 2003 Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy, New School, New York, NY Associate Professor of Health Policy and History (Tenure granted June 2001) Eugene Lang College, New School, New York, NY Chair of Urban Studies Concentration

March – August 1999; June- August 2000; January-March 2001 Visiting Professor, Programa de Población, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay

July 1994 – June 2001 Milano Graduate School, New School for Social Research, New York, NY Assistant Professor of Health Policy and History Head, Comparative International Health Policy Track, Health Policy Research Center

January – December 1995 Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC Consultant to project on the history of public health in Latin America

January 1994 – June 1996 Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD Faculty Associate, taught 2 courses on “Historical Issues in Health Care”

January – Dec. 1994 Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC Resident in International Health and director of project on history of public health in Latin America and the Caribbean

October 1991 – March 1992 AIDS Program, Catalunya Health Department, Barcelona, Spain Director of policy and program for school placement of HIV-positive children

May 1989 – December 1990 Baltimore City Health Department, Division of School and Adolescent Health, USA Policy analyst and researcher on child and teen health

February – June 1990 Milbank Memorial Fund, New York, NY Research associate for project on the history of chronic disease policy

Honours & Awards

  • 2016 – Keynote Address, Shanghai University, funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, and the Universities of Strathclyde and Shanghai
  • 2014 – Recognized among top 100 Women Leaders in Global Health: http://graduateinstitute.ch/files/live/sites/iheid/files/sites/globalhealth/ghp-new/news/2014/100%20Women%20in%20Global%20Health.pdf
  • 2012 – Stephen Stewart Gloyd Endowed Lecture, School of Public Health, University of Washington
  • 2012 – George Rosen Memorial Lecture, Beaumont Medical Club of Connecticut, Yale University, CT
  • 2008-13 (renewal) – Canada Research Chair (Tier II), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research
  • 2011 – Domna Stanton endowed lectureship, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA
  • 2011 – Wilbur G. Downs endowed lectureship, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT
  • 2009 – Keynote address at 56th conference of Japanese Society of Child Health, Osaka
  • 2009 – visiting fellow, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies
  • 2007-8 – Fulbright Scholarship to France (Multidisciplinary Research Award)
  • 2007 – Chair’s Teaching Citation, University of Toronto-Scarborough
  • 2003-8 Canada Research Chair (Tier II), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

Current Research Projects

Historical projects:

  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Hochman, Gilberto. A Short History of International and Global Health: An Americas Perspective (advance contract, Oxford University Press)
  • Social justice and international (health) politics in the 1980s and 1990s
  • Book manuscript on the emergence of the child health rights movement from the perspective of Uruguay
  • Health and Medicine in Cold War Latin America (edited book with Raúl Necochea)
  • 2008-2013 The Dynamics of International Health: History, Politics, and the Circulation of Ideas and Practices (CRC/CIHR)

Contemporary global/international health policy projects:

  • 2013-18 PI for “Health Diplomacy at a Crossroads: Social Justice-Oriented South-South Cooperation in a Time of Global Change,” CIHR Operating Grant – Priority Announcement: Ethics funding opportunity
  • Preparing 4th edition of Textbook of International Health: Global Health in a Dynamic World (Oxford University Press)

Representative Publications

BOOKS:

  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, Pillay, Yogan, and Holtz, Timothy H. Textbook of Global Health, 4th edition. Oxford University Press, 2017. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/textbook-of-global-health-9780199392285?lang=en&cc=ca#
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Brown, Theodore, eds. Comrades in Health: US Health Internationalists, Abroad and at Home, Rutgers University Press, 2013. http://rutgerspress.rutgers.edu/product/Comrades-in-Health,4808.aspx
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, Pillay, Yogan, and Holtz, Timothy H. Textbook of International Health: Global Health in a Dynamic World, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, 2009. http://www.us.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Medicine/PublicHealth/?view=usa&ci=9780195300277
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. Marriage of Convenience: Rockefeller International Health and Revolutionary Mexico, University of Rochester Press, 2006; paperback edition 2012. http://www.boydell.co.uk/www.urpress.com/80462227.HTM

EDITED JOURNAL VOLUMES:

  • Einstein, Gillian and Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, eds. Women’s Health & Urban Life, Special Graduate Student Issue on “Gender/Sex and Health: Contextualizing the Body.” May 2013 (XII): Special Issue 1.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Hochman, Gilberto, eds. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, special issue on “Latin America and International Health,” 2008, 25 (1). Available online at: http://www.cbmh.ca/index.php/index/index
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, ed. Journal of Public Health Policy, special section on “Health & Human Rights: Critical Historical Perspectives from the Cold War to the New World Order,” 2008, 29 (1): 29-71. Available online at: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/journal/v29/n1/index.html#Special-Section:-Health-and-Human-Rights:-Critical-Historical-Perspectives-from-the-Cold-War-to-the-New-World-Order
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, ed. Canadian Journal of Public Health, special insert on “Canada, Latin America, and International Health,” 2006, 97 (6). Available online at: http://journal.cpha.ca/index.php/cjph/issue/view/202
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Hochman, Gilberto, eds. História, Ciências, Saúde – Manguinhos, special issue on “History of International Health: Latin American Perspectives” 2006, 13(3). Available online at: www.scielo.br
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Fein, Oliver, eds. American Journal of Public Health, special issue on “Health Care Reform,” 2003, 93 (1). Available online at: http://www.ajph.org/search.dtl
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Fergerson, Gerard, eds. Radical History Review, special issue on “Health Politics/Health Workers.” 2001, 80 (Spring). Available online at: http://rhr.dukejournals.org/content/vol2001/issue80/

Selected Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals (since 2008)

  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Hellander, Ida “Market-Driven Health Care Mess: The United States,” Cadernos de Saúde Pública/ Reports in Public Health, 32(3), e00014816. Epub 12 April 2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00014816.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, Nervi, Laura, and Siqueira, Eduardo, “Neoliberalism Redux: The Global Health Policy Agenda and the Politics of Cooptation in Latin America and Beyond,” Development and Change, Forum 2016, Debate section, 47(4): 734-759.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Nervi, Laura, “Political Roots of the Struggle for Health Justice in Latin America,” The Lancet 385:1174-5. March 28, 2015 (early online October 16, 2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61844-4. http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(14)61844-4.pdf     Translated into Spanish and published in Medicina Social 2014, 9(3): 251-255.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Philanthrocapitalism, Past and Present: The Rockefeller Foundation, the Gates Foundation, and the Setting(s) of the International/Global Health Agenda,” Hypothesis, 2014, 12 (1): 1-27, e6, doi:10.5779/hypothesis. v10i1.229.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Backstage: The relationship between the Rockefeller Foundation and the World Health Organization, Part I: 1940s-1960s,” Public Health (Royal Society for Public Health), 2014, 128(2): 129-140.
  • Jackson, Suzanne; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Fawcett, Stephen; Poland, Blake; and Schultz, Jerry, “Synergy for Health Equity: Integrating Health Promotion and Social Determinants of Health Approaches in/and beyond the Americas,” Pan American Journal of Public Health/ Rev Panam Salud Pública, 2013, 34(6):473–80.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Fee, Elizabeth, “The Rockefeller Foundation: Setting the International Health Agenda,” The Lancet, May 11, 2013, 381:1618-1619.
  • Einstein, Gillian and Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Editors’ Introduction,” Women’s Health & Urban Life, Graduate Student Issue on “Gender/Sex and Health: Contextualizing the Body.” May 2013, 12(1): xii-xviii.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Remaking International Health: Refreshing Perspectives from Latin America,” Pan American Journal of Public Health, 2011, 30(2):106-10.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Necochea, Raúl, “Footprints on the Future: Looking Forward to Latin American Medical History in the Twenty-First Century,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 2011, 91(3):503-527.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Lexchin, Joel, “Beyond Patents: The GAVI Alliance, AMCs, and Improving Immunization Coverage through Public Sector Vaccine Production in the Global South,” Human Vaccines, 2011, 7(3): 291-2.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Small(pox) success?” Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 2011, 16(2): 591-597.
  • Larson, Charles; Haddid, Slim; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, et al., “Grand Challenges Canada: Inappropriate Emphasis and Missed Opportunities in Global Health Research?” Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2011, 102(2): 149-151.
  • Richardson, Emma and Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Latin America: An Analysis of Trends, Commitments and Achievements,” Reproductive Health Matters, 2011, 19 (38): 183–196.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Cabella, Wanda; and Pollero, Raquel, “The Infant Mortality Conundrum in Uruguay during the First Half of the 20th Century: An Analysis According to Causes of Death.” Continuity and Change, 2010, 25(3): 435-461.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Nixon, Stephanie, “Canada’s Health Care System: A Relevant Approach for South Africa?” South African Medical Journal, 2010, 100 (8): 516-520.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Making it Politic(al): Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health,” Social Medicine/Medicina Social, 2009, 4(3): 166-182.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “The Stages of International (Global) Health: Histories of Success or Successes of History?” Global Public Health, 2009 4(1): 50-68.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Doctors on Record: Uruguay’s Infant Mortality Stagnation and its Remedies, 1895-1945,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 2008, 82 (2):311-354.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Hochman, Gilberto, “Communication, Control, and Cooperation: (Latin) American Interchanges in the History of International Health,” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, 2008, 25 (1): 7-16.
  • Carrillo, Ana María and Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Neighbours on Notice: National and Imperialist Interests in the American Public Health Association, 1872-1921,” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, 2008, 25 (1): 83-112.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Health and Human Rights: Historical Perspectives and Political Challenges,” Journal of Public Health Policy, 2008, 29: 32-41.http://www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/journal/v29/n1/pdf/3200165a.pdf

Book Chapters (since 2008):

  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Richter, Judith. “US Philanthrocapitalism and the Global Health Agenda: The Rockefeller and Gates Foundations, past and present,” in Howard Waitzkin, ed. The Collapse of Capitalist Health Care and the Road Ahead, Monthly Review Press, forthcoming 2016.
  • Kumar, Ramya, Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, and McDonough, Peggy. “International cooperation in women’s health: Critical analysis of a quarter century of paradigm shifts,” Gideon, Jasmine, ed. Handbook on Gender and Health, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, 2016, pp. 25-44. http://www.elgaronline.com/view/9781784710859.xml
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Brown, Theodore, “Introduction: Health Comrades, Abroad and at Home,” in Anne-Emanuelle Birn and Theodore Brown, eds., Comrades in Health: US Health Internationalists, Abroad and at Home, Rutgers University Press, 2013.
  • Brown, Theodore and Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “The Making of Health Internationalists,” in Anne-Emanuelle Birn and Theodore Brown, eds., Comrades in Health: US Health Internationalists, Abroad and at Home, Rutgers University Press, 2013.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Brown, Theodore, “Conclusion: Across the Generations: Lessons from Health Internationalism,” in Anne-Emanuelle Birn and Theodore Brown, eds., Comrades in Health: US Health Internationalists, Abroad and at Home, Rutgers University Press, 2013.
  • Satzinger, Franziska and Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Social and Societal Determinants of Health,” Encyclopedia of Bioethics, 4th Edition, Bruce Jennings, ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference, 2014, pp. 2639-2645.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, From plagues to peoples: Health on the modern global/international agenda,” in Ted Schrecker, ed., Ashgate Research Companion to the Globalization of Health, Ashgate, 2012, pp. 39-59.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Uruguay’s child rights approach to health: What role for civil registration?” in Keith Breckenridge and Simon Szreter, eds., Registration and Recognition: Documenting the Person in World History, Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2012, pp. 415-447.
  • Pinto, Andrew D., Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, Upshur, Ross E.G., “The Context of Global Health Ethics,” in Andrew Pinto and Ross Upshur, eds., An Introduction to Global Health Ethics, Routledge, 2012, pp. 3-15.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, “Public Health and Medicine in Latin America,” in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine, Mark Jackson, ed. Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 243-265.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Addressing the Societal Determinants of Health: The key global health ethics imperative of our times,” in Global Health Ethics, edited by Solly Benatar and Gillian Brock. Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 37-52.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Historicising, Politicising, and “Futurising” Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health,” in Social Determinants of Health: Assessing Theory, Policy and Practice, edited by Sanjoy Bhattacharya, Sharon Messenger, and Caroline Overy. Hyderabad, India: Orient Blackswan, 2010, pp. 76-113.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “¿Revolución, nada más?: La campaña de la Fundación Rockefeller contra la Uncinariasis en México de la década de 1920,” in Curar, Sanar y Educar. Salud, Enfermedad y Sociedad en México, Siglos XIX y XX, edited by Claudia Agostoni. México, D.F.: Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2008, pp. 257-286.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Milking the Welfare State: Social Policies and Uruguay’s Infant Mortality Stagnation,” in Social Determinants of Health: Global Histories, Contemporary Debates, edited by Harold Cook, Sanjoy Bhattacharya and Anne Hardy. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman Private Ltd, 2008, pp. 174-202.
  • Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Historiography of Infant and Child Health in Latin America,” in Healing the World’s Children: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Child Health in the Twentieth Century, edited by Cynthia Comacchio, Janet Golden, and George Weisz. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2008, pp. 73-108.
  • Recent Working Papers: Bambas-Nolen L, Birn A-E, Cairncross E, et al. Case study on extractive industries. Background paper prepared for The Lancet–University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health, 2013.https://www.med.uio.no/helsam/english/research/global-governance-health/background-papers/extrac-indus.pdf

BOOK AND MEDIA REVIEWS (since 2008):

American Historical Review 2011(76):490-1 Mariola Espinosa, Epidemic Invasions: Yellow Fever and the Limits of Cuban Independence, 1878-1930

Bulletin of Latin American Research 2009 (28):138-9 Jeffrey Pilcher, The Sausage Rebellion: Public Heath, Private Enterprise and Meat in Mexico City, 1890-1917

H-Diplo Article reviews 2013 (with Nikolai Krementsov) review of Anna Geltzer, “In a Distorted Mirror: The Cold War and U.S.-Soviet Biomedical Cooperation and (Mis)understanding, 1956–1977,” Journal of Cold War Studies

Lancet     2016(388):121 Ted Schrecker and Clare Bambra, How Politics Makes Us Sick: Neoliberal Epidemics

Medical History 2014(58):604-6 Deborah Neill, Networks in Tropical Medicine: Internationalism, Colonialism and the Rise of a Medical Specialty, 1890-1930

Nature Medicine 2011(17), 1:23 Mark Pendergrast, Inside the Outbreaks: The Elite Medical Detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service

Social History 2010 (35):88-90 Ann Zulawski, Unequal Cures: Public Health and Political Change in Bolivia, 1900-1950

The Americas 2010 (66):398-9 Matthew Gutmann, Fixing Men: Sex, Birth Control, and AIDS in Mexico

FOREWORDS, COMMENTS, LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, BLOGS, PRAISE QUOTES, ARTICLES IN THE POPULAR PRESS (since 2008):

Invited praise quote (dustjacket and website) for Randall Packard, A History of Global Health: Interventions into the Lives of Other Peoples, Johns Hopkins University Press, forthcoming 2016.

             Invited praise quote (dustjacket and website) for Gilberto Hochman, The Era of Sanitation: Nation, State, and Public Health in Brazil, 1889-1930, University of Illinois Press, forthcoming 2016.

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, Mariajosé Aguilera, Ben Brisbois, and Timothy H. Holtz, “Why Addressing Climate Change is Not Enough” Huffington Post, December 25, 2015 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/anneemanuelle-birn/why-addressing-climate-change-is-not-enough_b_8877748.html

Invited praise quote (dustjacket and website) for David Sowell, Medicine on the Periphery: Public Health in Yucatán, Mexico, 1870-1960, Lexington Books/ Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.

             David McCoy, David Sanders, David Legge, Anne-Emanuelle Birn, Amit Sengupta, “Social and political remedies needed for the Ebola tragedy.” Letter to the Editor. The Lancet, 2015, 386:738.

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle and Brown, Theodore, “Misunderstanding Comrades in Health,” The Lancet, 2014, 384:1262.

Chiriboga, David; Buss, Paulo; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; et al. “Investing in Health,” Letter to the Editor. The Lancet, 2014, 383:949.

DeVos, Pol, Claudio Schuftan, David Sanders, Ronald Labonte, David Woodward, Anne-Emanuelle Birn, Chiara Bodini, Angelo Stefanini, Hani Serag Commission on Global Governance for Health: Just another report? Letter to the Editor. The Lancet, 2014, 383:1379-80

Invited praise quote (dustjacket and website) for Robert Chernomas and Ian Hudson, To Live and Die in America: Class, Power, Health and Healthcare, Pluto Press, 2013.

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle The WCSDH was a missed opportunity and the Rio Declaration lacked political teeth Internet interview with Alberto Pellegrini Filho, 2011. Available at: http://cmdss2011.org/site/entrevistas/the-wcsdh-was-a-missed-opportunity-and-the-rio-declaration-little-political/ Portuguese version: A CMDSS foi uma oportunidade perdida e a Declaração do Rio pouco política [entrevista na internet]. Entrevista concedida a Alberto Pellegrini Filho, 2011. [acesso em]. Disponível em: http://cmdss2011.org/site/entrevistas/a-cmdss-foi-uma-oportunidade-perdida-e-a-declaracao-do-rio-pouco-politica/

Invited praise quote (dustjacket and website) for Nancy Krieger, Epidemiology and the People’s Health: Theory and Context, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle, Holtz, Timothy H, and Gassert, Thomas H. “Digging beneath the Chilean mine rescue,”The Toronto Star, October 17, 2010, p. A19. http://www.thestar.com/opinion/editorialopinion/article/876348–digging-beneath-the-chilean-mine-rescue (Reprinted in New England College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, NECOEM Reporter, Vol. 2, 30, Autumn 2010, pp. 1, 7.)

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Prólogo,” in Adriana Alvarez, Entre muerte y mosquitos: El regreso de las plagas en la Argentina (siglos XIX y XX). Buenos Aires: Biblos, 2010, pp. 13-15.

Krieger, Nancy and Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Health Reform Battles in the USA,” Letter to the Editor. The Lancet, 2010, 375:1081.

Birn, Anne-Emanuelle. “Mortal Questions: Uruguay’s Infant Mortality Conundrum,” Wellcome History, Spring 2009, 40: 2-4. www.wellcome.ac.uk/wellcomehistory