Skip to content

Faculty Member

Xiaolin Wei MD, MPH, PhD

Email Address(es)
Office Phone
416 978 2020
Office Address
582-155 College Street, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
Global Implementation Science Lab
Clinical Public Health Division
Institute of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation
SGS Status
Full Member
Appointment Status
Currently Accepting Doctoral Students?

Research Interests

  • Implementation Science
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Tuberculosis
  • Diabetes and hypertension
  • Primary care
  • Global health


Prof Wei is the Dalla Lana Chair in Global Health Policy. He has led a global implementation science team to successfully explore interventions that combine public health education and stewardship regarding antimicrobial resistance, tuberculosis (TB), hypertension and diabetes, and recently COVID-19 in primary care settings. His research is innovative in developing and delivering effective interventions together with the community, health providers, patients and their families. His current work focuses on LMICs including China, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Cambodia, and Nepal. He is a Board Member of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and served its Vice-President and Secretary General. He provides consultancy to the World Health Organization on a regular basis. He is the co-lead on the global implementation science cluster in DLSPH. He is also the Founder and Director of the Global Implementation Science Lab to develop effective and impactful solutions in response to global health challenges.

Education & training history

  • 2012- Fellow, Faculty of Public Health, UK
  • 2004 – PhD, University of Toronto, Canada
  • 2001 – MSc in Health Admin, Peking University, China
  • 1998 – MD, Jining Medical School, China

Teaching responsibilities

  • CHL5632H: Application of Implementation Science in Global Health
  • CHL5631H: Integrating Public Health and Clinical Care: The case of TB
  • HAD5778H: Comparative Health Systems and Policy (with Dr. Sara Allin)
  • CHL5005H (PhD stream): Introduction to Public Health Research: 2017-2019
  • Full SGS member, supervising PhD student in Health Service Research in IHPME

Ongoing Research Projects (as PI)

2021-2023.       Developing a tool kit to build vaccine confidence and ensure equitable COVID-19 vaccination implementation strategies in low-and-middle income countries: a multi-stakeholder implementation science and co-development study, by Canadian Institutes of Health Research

2022-2023.        Implementing a telemedicine and remote-mentoring platform to provide integrated noncommunicable disease and COVID- 19 care in primary care facilities in rural Pakistan, by Canadian Institutes of Health Research

2020-2023        Developing integrated guidelines for health care workers in hospital and primary healthcare facilities in response to Covid-19 pandemic in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), 2020-2022, by Canadian Institutes of Health Research

2019-2024.       Antibiotic stewardship program in primary care facilities to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections: a clustered randomised controlled trial and follow-up study in rural China, 2019-2024, by China Primary Care Foundation

Research Summary

My academic contribution has been focused on disease control and primary care in four areas: 1) primary care policy; 2) antimicrobial resistance (AMR); 3) tuberculosis (TB); and 4) hypertension and diabetes. This are all high profile global and local public health challenges. My research program has been strongly linked to creative professional activities in employing implementation science frameworks to change practice and health policies in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Through my research, I have established extensive partnerships with health authorities, NGOs and academics in several LMICs (including China, the Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Uganda and Swaziland). Evidence from my research has been used to formulate national policies in control of antimicrobial, tuberculosis and diabetes/ hypertension in primary care settings in China, Nepal, and Ghana to improve population health and equity. These linked program of research and creative professional activities has demonstratable impacts not only in the LMICs populations I worked with, but also at the global level on TB and AMR policies. My research impacts are evidenced through a total of 17 large scale peer-reviewed grants as PI (a total > C$10 million), and over 130 high-impact papers published in journals such as Lancet Global Health, PLoS Medicine, WHO Bulletin, and Annals of Family Medicine.

Recent selected publications :

Wei, X., Zhang Z, Chong M, Hicks J, Gong W, Zou G, Zhong J, Walley, J.D., Upshur R, Yu, M. 2021, Effect of a package of risk-based pharmaceutical and lifestyle interventions on patients with hypertension and/or diabetes in rural China: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, PLoS Med 18(7): e1003694. pmed.1003694

Zou G, Zhang W, King R, Zhang Z, Walley J, Gong W, Yu M, Wei X*. Process Evaluation of a Clustered Randomized Control Trial of a Comprehensive Intervention to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Primary Health Care in Rural China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11).

Zhuo C, Wei X*, Zhang Z, Hicks JP, Zheng J, Chen Z, Haldane V, Walley J, Guan Y, Xu H, Zhong Nanshan. An antibiotic stewardship programme to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in rural Chinese primary care facilities: study protocol for a clustered randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2020;21(1):394.

Haldane V, Ratnapalan S, Perera N, Zhang Z, Ge S, Choi M, Lau LL, Samaraweera S, Dodd W, Walley J, Wei X*.: Codevelopment of COVID-19 infection prevention and control guidelines in lower-middle-income countries: the ‘SPRINT’ principles. BMJ Glob Health 2021, 6(8).

Lau LL, Hung N, Go DJ, Ferma J, Choi M, Dodd W, Wei X. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of COVID-19 among income-poor households in the Philippines: A cross-sectional study. J Glob Health. 2020;10(1):011007.

Haldane V, Zhang Z, Abbas RF, Dodd W, Lau LL, Kidd MR, Rouleau, K., Zou, G., Chao, Z., Upshur, R.,Walley, J, Wei X*. National primary care responses to COVID-19: a rapid review of the literature. BMJ Open. 2020;10(12):e041622

Wei X*, Deng S, Haldane V, Blacklock C, Zhang W, Walley J, King R, et al. Understanding complex interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing in rural China: a process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial. Journal of health services research & policy. 2020;25(2):94-103.

Wei X, Zhang Z, Hicks JP, Walley JD, King R, Newell JN, Yin, J., Zeng, J., Guo, Y., Lin, M., Upshur, R. E. G., Sun, Q. “Long-term outcomes of an educational intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: Follow-up of a cluster-randomised controlled trial”. PLoS Med. 2019;16(2):e1002733.

Zhang Z, Dawkins B, Hicks JP, Walley JD, Hulme C, Elsey H., Deng SM., Lin M., Zeng J., Wei, X*. “Cost-effectiveness analysis of a multi-dimensional intervention to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for children with upper respiratory tract infections in China”. Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH. 2018;23(10):1092-100.

Wei X, Zhang Z, Walley JD, Hicks JP, Zeng J, Deng S, Zhou Y, Yin J, Newell JN, Sun Q, Zou G, Guo Y, Upshur R, Lin M. “Effect of a training and educational intervention for physicians and caregivers on antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in children at primary care facilities in rural China: a cluster-randomised controlled trial”. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5(12):e1258-e67.

Wei X, Yin J, Walley JD, Zhang Z, Hicks JP, Zhou Y, Sun Q, Zeng J., Lin M. “Impact of China’s essential medicines scheme and zero-mark-up policy on antibiotic prescriptions in county hospitals: a mixed methods study”. Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH. 2017;22(9):1166-74.

Walker IF, Shi OM, Hicks JP, Elsey H, Wei X., Menzies D., Falzon D, Migliori GB, Perez-Guzman C, Vargas MH, Garcia-Garcia L, Osornio JS, Ponce-De-Leon A, Van der Walt M, Newell JN. “Analysis of loss to follow up in 4,099 multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients”. European Respiratory Journal. 2019; 54(1)

Wei X, Hicks JP, Pande P, Zhang Z, Haldane V, Liu XQ, et al. “Protocol for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of improving tuberculosis patients’ treatment adherence via electronic monitors and an app versus usual care in Tibet”. Trials. 2019;20(1):273

Li B, Zhang XL, Guo J, Wang J, Pianduo B, Wei XL, Ying TT, Hu J. “The Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Tibet Autonomous Region, China in 2014”. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease. 2019;23(6):735-740

Ge E, Li D, Luo M, Tsui KWS, Waye MMY, Shen X, Wei X*. “Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Shanghai: roles of residential status”. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease. 2018;22(12):1462-8.

Chen B, Gu H, Wang X, Wang F, Peng Y, Ge E, Wei X.* “Prevalence and determinants of latent tuberculosis infection among frontline tuberculosis healthcare workers in southeastern China: A multilevel analysis by individuals and health facilities”. Int J Infect Dis. 2018;79:26-33.

Yin, J.#, Yuan, J., Hu, Y., & Wei, X*. (2016). “Association between Directly Observed Therapy and Treatment Outcomes in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. PloS One. 11(3), e0150511. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150511

Wei X, Yin J, Zhang ZT, Walley J, Harwell J, Li H, Li R, Wang L, Sun Q, and Zhang XL, (2015), “Treatment Interruptions and Provision of Directly Observed Treatment of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in China”. Journal of International Union against TB and Lung Disease. 19(4):413–419

Wei, X., Walley, J.D., Zhang, Z., Zou, G., Gong, W., Deng, S., Harries, A.D., Hicks, J.P., Chong, M.K.C., Newell, J.N., Zhong, J., Yu, M. 2017. “Implementation of a comprehensive intervention for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease in rural China: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial”. PLoS One. 12, e0183169.

Wei X*, Li H, Yang N, Wong YSS, Chong MCK, Shi, L, Wong MCS, Xu J, Zhang D, Tang J, Li DKT, Meng Q, Griffiths S, (2015). “Changes of primary care quality in two megacities of China between 2011 and 2013: a multivariate difference-in-difference analysis”, Bulletin of the World Health Organization 93:407-16

Full publication list available at:

News Articles

Managing Diabetes and Hypertension Remotely in Rural Pakistan

“A Perfect Storm”: DLSPH Researchers Fight Vaccine Hesitancy in the Philippines

U of T Researchers Receive Grant to Increase Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Tibet

U of T study finds long-term success in reducing unnecessary antibiotics prescriptions in China